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TBI Terms

ADL –
A term that stands for activities of daily living which include eating, dressing, grooming, shaving, etc. Can also be referred to as DLS (daily living skills).

Ambulation –
The ability to walk.

Anoxic Brain Injury-
An injury resulting from lack of oxygen to the brain for several minutes or longer, causing brain cells to die.

Aphasia –
Inability to express oneself and/or to understand language as a result of brain damage.

Apraxia –
Inability to complete complex or skilled movement for reasons due to brain injury.

Ataxia –
Lack of muscle coordination.

Atrophy –
Decrease in size or wasting away of a normally developed body parts due to lack of nutrition.

Cerebellum –
The part of the brain which controls movement.

Cervical Cord –
Contains the nerves for the biceps, deltoids, wrist extensors triceps, and hands.

Closed head injury –
A head injury which damages the brain but doesn’t penetrate or fracture the skull.

Cognition –
Process of becoming aware of thoughts or perceptions.

Coma –
A condition in which a patient is unconscious and cannot be aroused.

CT scan –
A series of x-rays which is used to examine the different levels of the brain.

Diffuse Axonal Injury-
occurs over a widespread area of the brain when acceleration or deceleration forces the brain to move which leads to a shearing injury.

Frontal lobe –
Front part of the brain which enables cognitive functions like planning, organizing, problem solving, etc.

Glasgow Outcome Scale (GOS) –
A method which determines the outcome of brain injury survivors in regards to functional independence.

Occipital lobe –
Primarily processes visual information and is located in the back of the brain.

Occupational therapy (OT) –
Structured activity which redevelops fine motor skills. Patients also learn techniques including dressing, bathing, self-grooming and preparing food.

Parietal lobe –
The right parietal lobe is primarily handles nerve impulses related to the senses and language functions.

Physical therapy (PT) –
Structured activity which includes exercise programs geared toward muscle strengthening and endurance, maintaining range of motion, improving coordination and regaining mobility, often with the use of assistive devices.

Speech pathology –
Structured activity geared towards treating and improving problems with speech and language, attention, memory, organization, planning, and sequencing, reading comprehension and writing skills.

Subdural hematoma-
Occurs when blood vessels rupture between the inner layer of the dura and the surface of the brain.

Temporal lobes –
Right temporal lobe is mainly involved in visual memory. Left temporal lobe is mainly involved in verbal memory.